On the Deccan Plateau , archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India , a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions.
In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas ; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira. Buddhism , based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha , attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle.
The country is home to people of many different ethnic origins; as a result, people of Nepal do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, but with citizenship and allegiance. Although citizens make up the majority of Nepali, non-citizen residents, dual citizen and expatriates may claim a Nepali identity. Nepal is a multiethnic country. Nepali are multilinguistic group.
Kathmandu Valley , in the middle hill region, constitutes a small fraction of the nation's area but is the most densely populated, with 5 percent of the nation's population. Local legends say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times and that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Ne", it is mentioned in Vedic texts.
According to the Skanda Purana , a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people. Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form.
A Sanskrit inscription dated CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people; the founder of modern Nepal, Badamaharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah is considered a unifying figure and symbol of Nepali National Unity.
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FAU belongs to the campus State University System of Florida and serves South Florida , which has more than five million people and spans more than miles of coastline. Florida Atlantic University is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity; the university offers more than undergraduate and graduate degree programs within its 10 colleges. Programs of study cover arts and humanities, the sciences, nursing, business, public administration, social work, architecture and computer science.
Florida Atlantic opened in as the first public university in southeast Florida, offering only upper-division and graduate level courses.
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Initial enrollment was only students, increasing in when the university admitted its first lower-division undergraduate students. As of , enrollment has grown to over 30, students representing countries, 50 states, the District of Columbia. Since its inception, Florida Atlantic has awarded more than , degrees to nearly , alumni. In recent years, FAU has undertaken an effort to increase its academic and research standings while evolving into a more traditional university; the university has raised admissions standards, increased research funding, built new facilities, established notable partnerships with major research institutions.
Changes include an on-campus stadium, additional on-campus housing, the establishment of a College of Medicine in On July 15, , to meet the burgeoning educational demands of South Florida, the state legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of a new university in the City of Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic University was built on a s-era army airbase. During World War II , the airfield served as the Army Air Corps ' sole radar training facility; the base was built on 5, acres of adjacent land.
A majority of the land was acquired from Japanese-American farmers from the failing Yamato Colony. The land was seized through eminent domain, leaving many Japanese-Americans little recourse in the early days of World War II; the airbase was used for radar training, anti-submarine patrols along the coast, as a stop-over point for planes being ferried to Africa and Europe via South America. The airfield was composed of four runways, still visible on the Boca Campus today and used for parking.
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By early , the military decided to transfer future radar training operations to Keesler Air Force Base in Mississippi; the departure of the air force in would leave Boca Raton Army Airfield abandoned. Florida Atlantic University opened on September 14, , with an initial student body of students in five colleges; the first degree awarded was an honorary doctorate given to President Lyndon B.
Johnson on October 25, , at the dedication and opening of the university. At the time of its opening, there were faculty out of a total of employees. On-campus housing for students was first added in September Florida Atlantic's history is one of continuing expansion as the university's service population has grown; the university served only upper-division and graduate level students, because Florida intended the institution "to complement the state's community college system, accepting students who had earned their associate degrees from those institutions.
Due to a expanding population in South Florida, in Florida Atlantic opened its doors to lower-division undergraduate students; the following year, the university added its third campus, in downtown Fort Lauderdale on Las Olas Boulevard. In , the Florida Legislature recognized demands for higher education in South Florida by designating Florida Atlantic as the lead state university serving Broward County. To fill this role, the university would establish a campus in Dania Beach in and another campus in the City of Davie in western Broward County in Florida Atlantic purchased 50 acres of land in Port St.
Lucie in to establish a campus on the Treasure Coast ; this would be the institution's fifth campus. The university continued its expansion in when it opened its Jupiter Campus, named for the late John D. MacArthur ; this campus houses the university's honors college. Schmidt College of Biomedical Science in Plans called for the construction of a new teaching hospital in coordination with Boca Raton Community Hospital on the main campus.
Following successive budgets deficits in , the hospital delayed its participation indefinitely. However, Florida Atlantic established its own College of Medicine in ; the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution joined the university in , creating Florida Atlantic's seventh campus. Florida Atlantic has changed since its opening in As of , there were more than 30, students attending classes on seven campuses spread across miles; the university employs more than 3, faculty and staff. The unive. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
With an estimated population of It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest , the highest point on Earth.
Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet.
The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans , was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala ; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture.
By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal ; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire , under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in , but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in and ; the Nepalese Civil War in the s and early s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in , ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.
The Constitution of Nepal , adopted in , establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in , friendship treaties were signed with India in and the People's Republic of China in Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation , of which it is a founding member. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage " Nemi ", it is mentioned in Vedic texts.
A Sanskrit inscription dated CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of " Nepal ". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and " Newari " are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R.
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC.
The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas , peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism , came to be known as Gautama Buddha.
There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang , dating from about CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal. The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r. China China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1. Covering 9,, square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China , the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Illust by Som Sanu. Play of boys and girls - a childrens play. The gift of childrens song - Music and Songs. Childrens Song Part 1. Child Detective - a collection of 7 stories. Illust by Ramesh Kshitij. Baljhirahane Atit Aljhirahane Vartaman. Snagged Past Entangled Present.
This is a compilation of stories of struggle, misery of the outclassed citizens of Dalit community. Footprints of my childhoold - travelogue. Illust by Surya Narayan Shrestha. Fradulent - a nepali fiction. Sahitya Bikash Upasamiti, Kathmandu. To Live One Life - a fiction. Mother Monkeys Love - a collection 6 stories. Illust by Saroj Bajracharya. Euphorias of an Imprisonment - a collection of 13 tales. Crooked Lines - A collection of memoirs essays by Saru Bhakta.
In this book the author travels back to his madan puraskar winning, pagal basti, enters into the the nuclues of Chuli, takes flight on scientific literature, and has discussions with literatures that influence him like Bhupi Sherchan,Badal Sarkar,Dhuswa Sayami. Wild Flower - a long verse. Barapata Parichaya ra Paridrisya.
Barapata Introduction and Panorama. Essays and travelogues on those rainy days. Todays lila - a filmy fiction. Changing Resisdence - a fiction. This very popular fiction is a 2nd edition copy printed in A. D even before the publication of his other popular fiction Seto Bagh. Basu Rai from the Streets of Kathmandu. This inspiring book is mandatory reading for anyone who would like to contribute, in small or big ways, to bring positive change to the lives of vulnerable people Anu Aga. An autobiographical account of a child who grew up on the streets of Kathmandu. This account of the first ten years of his life is as such a mix and match of childs memories, part his reality, part his imagination published by Vitasta Publishing, India.
Bauddha Shikshama Baudha Sheelharu. Lama Bhikshu Ewang Thogme. Morality in the teachings of Buddha. Bauddhik Prashnottar Mala Samanya Gyan. Intellectual Question and Answer book General Knowledge. This book is about the history of the bayisi and the chaubisi states of Nepal of the earlier days. The writer has dug deep to do the research and has included the areas of far west, midwest and the central regions of Nepal. New Age Books, India. Arthabeed is the pen-name of Sujeev Shakya.
Behind Her Wedding Veil. Struggles of my Religious Mother. Through the history of one family, the author gives us a unique glimpse of the evolution of Nepal over the past century. This fourth offering from the writer is worth saying as it is different and filled with satire. In terms of creativity, this novel is thoroughly new. Belako Boli Bakhat ko Itihas. Centre for Nepal Studies UK. Belayit Tira Baralinda is a travelogue written by Tanasarma. Daily English Notes - a collection of travel essays. Beli Bal Manobaigyanik kathaharu.
Beli Children Psychological stories. Buddhists reflects on the rule of Saint Benedict. Bhimnidhi Tiwari Sahitya Samiti. Memories of Berlin - travel essays. A large portion of the content of this book is a collection opf already published essyas and articles of the author in various journals. This gripping tale is an intriguing, intimate saga of love and betrayal, life and its puzzling dilemmas, blending erotic ecstasy and sexual slavery with rampant religious rituals and tainted Tantric temptations. Bhagavadgeeta - The Song Supreme.
Running all over the earth - nepali poetry collection. A parrots share - a collection of children stories. Bhaktapur After A Century. Among the collected pieces, there is a diversity of stories, remarks, articles and letters. Historic Wooden Windows of Bhaktapur. Who is Bhakules Friend? Illust by Ujwal Kundan. Childrens Utensils Set - a collection of 7 stories. Bhanubhaktakrit BhashaRamayana Bhanuko jiwancharitra tatha anya sampurna criti pani sanlagna bhaeko.
Shiva Raj Acharya Kaundinnyayan. Entrapment of Enlisting - a historical research book. Love for the language. Study of Linguistic Language. Feast and Eyes - a poetry collection. Stories in this collection portray absurdities of life while simultaneously providing biting examples of social and political satire. A number of them also use stylistic devices associated with postmodernism, including mixing of literary genres as well as breaking of generic borders.
In addition, some of the stories use self-conscious narrator through the medium of meta-fiction. Such a varied combination of postmodern techniques and socio-political satire is the strength of this collection. BN Pustak Sansar, Kathmandu. Pictures of Cultivation - nepali poetry collection. Bhaya Satra is a travelogue written by Krishna Bajragain. Bhayeka ra Gujreka Ghatanaharu. Happened and Elapsed Events during the Rana period. Bhikhari is a nepali poem written by our very own Mahakavi Laxmi Prasad Devkota. Bhimdatta Pantako Krantiko Itihaas.
This book is written by Dr. This book is about the history of Krantees. Bhimnidhi Tiwarika Pratinidhi Kathaharu. Collection of representational stories of Bhimnidhi Tiwari. Bhimnidhi Tiwari and the analysis of the making of Gajal and Bhajan. Bhimnidhi Tiwari Shatvarshiki Mool Samuha. Bhimsen Thapa is a nepali fiction written by Sri Krishna Shrestha.
Bhimsen Thapako Suicide Note. Suicide note of Bhimsen Thapa - an anthology of contemporary poems. Bhisan Dinharu Ferocious Days , is divided into three auto-biographical sections: Although the book is about the violence and brutality of conflict, it is also about lost innocence, about how war becomes an end in itself, and how the momentum of the revolution sweeps everyone along in its path. Navin speaks matter-of-factly about killing and nearly getting killed, the exhilaration at the end of a battle, the sweet taste of victory, and the sorrow o. Hunger and Walls - a fiction.
Govinda Bahadur Malla 'Gothale'. Hungry House - a collection of eight one-act plays. Bumble-bee - a fiction. The title means beautiful flowers that blossom on the surface of the ground. It reflects and represents the thoughts of Mother Earth, showing that hard soil even has a soft heart that gives birth to nature and beauty. The writer travels through Nepal and sees the beauty on Earth.
She is highly moved by the Mother Nature and her fragrance that binds the Earth. Here, is her experience of travel throughout the icy mountains, plains, hills, and valley. She travels through Karnali district and has pr. Bhuinkhat is a nepali stories written by Mahesh Bikram Shah. Words for broken grounds - poetry collection. Bhuiyan is a nepali fiction written by Yangesh. Bhukampa ma Maalham Patti. Bhukampama Malhampati is a nepali fiction written by Rabindra Samir. This book contains essays written by the author which were published in newspapers, magazines etc.
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These essays mainly focus on the history and the present situation of politics in Nepal. This book will be caught the eye of readers who are interested in politics of Nepal. Bhumi, Kisan ra Rajya Nepal ma rajya ra kisan bichko sambandh. This book is based on many land-based farmers and state relations. It agreed on the relationship with other ethnic communities and describes the changes that are coming up.
Introduction to the Introduction - 17 essays. This book basically shows the relationship between Nepal, China and India in terms geology, culture,economical and political conditons. Bhutanesee Buddhism and Its Culture. The book is a comprehensive introduction to the countrys diverse Buddhist tradition, as well as its unique arts and craft, monasticism and peoples general way of life, all of which form the culture of the country.
Diverse Journey - a poety collection. I contributed pieces for Post Platform, a column at The Kathmandu Post, where you can write short musings. I would also translate my stories into English and Akhilesh Tripathi, then editor of Ekantipur would publish it. So, these were places where I tried my hand at writing in English. How did it help in your writing and career-wise? Did you have any mentor or colleague who helped you develop your skills?
How different you found the newspaper compared to national dailies of Nepal then? For that, I am grateful to Ghanashyam Ojha then with The Kathmandu Post , who supported my application and boosted my morale saying that a journalist writing in Nepali too can apply and win the prestigious fellowship. Ten fellows from nine different countries across the globe gathered in Washington DC where we attended a week-long boot-camp where we were trained on the basics of American journalism.
Then, all of us were sent to our respective newsrooms. I was posted to Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. It was April and I was badly missing Constituent Assembly elections at home. I tried to kill my homesickness by writing a piece on the CA elections. He has reported from China and visited India, Bangladesh and knows the region very well. He was of immense help. My next story at the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was on Bhutanese refugees who had just been resettled in the city. Through Nepali community, I tracked them down and wrote the story, which was well received both in Pittsburgh and in Nepal.
In the summer of , we gathered in Florida. The week-long training at the Poynter Institute, which in the US, is considered a premier institute for journalists, both new and old, proved to be an eye-opener. In New York, I met some wonderful people: These ties have proved to be lasting for me.
Well, there is a vast difference between the national dailies in Nepal and in the US. Although Pittsburgh Post-Gazette covered mostly the city with about three hundred thousand population, its circulation reached one hundred and fifty thousand on Sunday. Even though the newspaper circulation is in decline in the US, locals still read it religiously. I think that US market is saturated with too many newspapers. Even small towns, say like Damak in Nepal, have several daily newspapers. Many of the Post-Gazette staffers were laid off and bought out during my stay there and were worried both about their future and that of the paper they so dearly loved.
Is your style called Narrative writing? My contribution to these foreign outlets began after I acquired a degree of confidence in writing in English for the Post-Gazette. I contributed my first piece the Guardian Weekly in from Pittsburgh, where I profiled a Bhutanese refugee. Back from Nepal, I contributed a piece on a middle-aged man whose son had been disappeared during the Maoist insurgency. Then in , I got a chance to write for Time magazine. I pitched half a dozen story ideas and she gave me a go-ahead for a feature on Somali refugees stuck in Nepal. The story was published in Time.
For long, I had been looking for such a break and I continued to expand my repertoire. I pitched to outlets that were interested in stories from Nepal. To work as a freelance reporter, you have to have a good rapport with the editors first you need to find their email addresses. Then, you send a bunch of ideas and start working on it after their approval. As usual, reporting is the key.
But more important is the perspective. You have to keep in mind that you are writing for an international audience. So, the challenge is to both incorporate basic information such as where Nepal is located and bringing in the nuances and different shades of the topic you are dealing with. After submission, the editor edits your piece and sends with what in journalistic parlance is called C-and-C comments and corrections.
But not all of my writing can be characterized as such. I also write short news pieces, personal essays, and features. You also worked for Kantipur Daily and Hello Shukrabar from —both Nepali papers—and then joined Agence France-Presse in ; what made you interested in narrative writing and how different it is from other forms of writing?
Your experience in working with AFP. I was given a copy of a New Yorker at our orientation in the beginning of our fellowship in the US.
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